Researchers at the Florida Institute of Technology are collaborating on a NASA-funded project to produce oxygen from the Moon's regolith.
Using the FFC Cambridge process, which utilizes the electrochemical reduction of metal oxides in a molten salt electrolyte. In addition to providing oxygen for life support, the process could be used to generate liquid oxygen for use as rocket fuel. In a typical composition, Oxygen accounts for as much as 85% by weight of rocket fuel.
Thursday, June 09, 2005
Researchers at the Florida Institute of Technology are collaborating on a NASA-funded project to produce oxygen from the Moon's regolith.
Sunday, June 05, 2005
|Two researchers from opposite sides of the world have embarked on a project which they hope may change production, economics, and the very fabric of human society forever. |
Find out more at my new blog:
After nearly five weeks of being stuck a foot deep in a sand dune, Opportunity finally pulled its way out Saturday. Congratulations to NASA and the dedicated team of engineers at JPL!
Friday, June 03, 2005
Testifying in March of 2004 and February 2005, NASA claimed that using alternatives to the Shuttle would result in long delays and cost more than returning the aging craft to flight. The assessment relied primarily on headquarters personnel and an informal and undocumented process. Looking into the study, the GAO found that it could not validate the assessment.
The manned-Shuttle system needs to be shutdown immediately. The Shuttle could be operated in an unmanned mode to deliver the modules to the Space Station which are designed specifically for it. The U.S. could then purchase manned launches from the Russians to move personnel to and from the Space Station. The savings could be redirected towards building a Shuttle replacement.
NASA and SpaceX signed a joint cooperation agreement Thursday under the auspices of the Space Act of 1958.
"This agreement provides a framework for working with NASA on future spaceflight needs in support of low Earth orbit space missions and other steps in the Vision for Space Exploration," said Elon Musk, CEO of SpaceX. "We look forward to working with NASA to create an exciting future in human spaceflight."
A NASA advisory panel has set overall goals for space science for the agency to pursue over the next three decades. The first is to scan the cosmic background radiation to better understand the initial expansion of the universe. As part of that goal the agency would deploy instruments to monitor gravity waves and how they were affected by the inflation of the early universe followed by the Big Bang Observer which would monitor the ripples from the Big Bang itself.
The next objective would probe how black-holes affect space-time. To support the second gal, the Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope will study relativistic jets emerging from black holes. The James Webb Space Telescope, the follow-on for Hubble, will monitor the mergers and growth of black holes in the early universe.
Constellation-X, a combination of several X-ray satellites, will measure the properties of black holes. After 2025, the goals include imaging matter as it falls into a black hole.
The third objective is to understand the nature of dark matter. The Big Bang Observer will precisely measure the distance to more than a million binary system containing neutron stars and black holes, giving a precise measurement of the geometry of the universe.
The fourth goal is to better understand the process of planetary, stellar and galactic formation. Using both the James Webb Space Telescope and the Constellation-X array, NASA will attempt to uncover the make-up and structure of nascent astronomical entities.
NASA has given the green light for launch of the Phoenix lander mission in 2007. The lander is designed to use a 2.5m arm to procure samples for detailed analysis within the lander. Targeted for the icy northern plains, the lander will give a detailed assessment of the makeup of the Martian soil.
The lander is part of the Mars Scout Program of innovative and low-cost missions. At $386m including launch the probe is a bargain by interplanetary standards.
Friday, May 27, 2005
Thursday, May 26, 2005
Launched nearly 30 years ago, Voyager 1 has now officially reached the edge of the solar system. It has officially crossed the termination shock, where the solar wind drops abruptly drops in speed from supersonic to subsonic, and has now entered the heliosheath that divides our solar system from interstellar space.
The event was witnessed by a 2.5 times increase in the measured magnetic field indicating the drop in the speed of the solar wind and a concomitant increase in cosmic rays from interstellar space.
Voyager's Radio-isotope Thermal Generators should provide enough power for the craft to last until 2020 which NASA hopes will be enough time for the craft to pass beyond the heliopause into interstellar space.
Wednesday, May 25, 2005
Facing soaring budget overruns and launch delays, the James Webb Space Telescope, the planned replacement for the Hubble Space Telescope, is coming under review and may experience some cutbacks. With current estimates putting the price tag at $3.5bil by 2012 not including the launch cost, NASA is looking at what needs to be done to get its financial house in order.
Orbiting the sun at the Earth-Sun L2 point approximately 1.5mil km from Earth, Webb will have an ideal vantage point to observe star birth and the formation of the universes earliest galaxies.
NASA is going to the astrophysical community in mid-July to decide where the cuts will be either in Webb or in other projects.
A NASA study released earlier this year projects a 1 in 200 chance of catastrophic impact of space debris with the International Space Station. Currently the US Space Command tracks 13,000 objects in orbit larger than a baseball, but it estimate that there are as many as 200k additional object larger than a marble that they are unable to track.
Tuesday, May 24, 2005
The Cosmos 1 solar sail has completed its testing and is on its way to the launch facility at Severomorsk, Russia to be loaded in to a converted ICBM. Once in orbit, the craft will deploy its 20m diameter sails and attempt to use them under controlled flight.
If successfully, Cosmos 1 will point the way for launching vehicles and probes capable of exploring not just the solar system but also of traveling the vast distances to nearby stars.
The project is sponsored by The Planetary Society which has stuck with it despite a disappointing deployment failure in an earlier suborbital test in July of 2001.
The project also has its own website with animations depicting the mission.
"It's not just that Kliper is a good political deal or that it provides us with a powerful piece of technology. It will give us a vision, a scientific goal that young Europeans badly need today."
The cost of investing in the program is a true bargain at only 100m Euros per year.
Monday, May 23, 2005
At last Saturday's National Space Society's International Space Development Conference in Arlington, Virginia, Virgin Galactic representatives spoke about their plans to kick off the age of commercial spaceflight. With more than 30,000 individuals registering on their website interest in taking a suborbital flight, the company is selecting a group of 100 "founders" who will pay the $200k fee to be the first to go when they begin operation in 2008.
The craft that will take them there, SpaceShipTwo, will be a descendent of SpaceShipOne which pioneered the field last Fall with the successful completion of the X-Prize. While sharing the feathered tail and hybrid motor used by its predecessor, SpaceShipTwo will "not look like SpaceShipOne," according to Will Whitehorn, president of Virgin Galactic. SpaceShipTwo will fly to a peak altitude between 360k and 400k feet giving passengers about six minutes of weightlessness.
The company is planning to take about 450 people into space during 2008, roughly the same number that have flown into space since the dawn of the space age 4 decades ago. The company plans to double that number to about 1000 in 2009.
Once the operations achieves profitability, projected to be around 2013, the company will begin work on an orbital system. Prices are expected to drop to $50k for flights after 5 years and $25k after 9 years.
But to Virgin this is about more than profit, "I'm a firm believer that this will provide the foundation for the actual colonization of space," Whitehorn said. "That is really what this project is all about to us."
SpaceX is planning an August date for the initial launch of its Falcon 1 rocket. Slated to lift-off from Vandenberg Air Force Base carrying TacSat-1, built by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory.
It also sounds like Pay-Pal Founder Elon Musk has bigger plans for his venture, "We’ll be announcing something fairly significant later this year as far as much more capability than is currently represented. But we’d like to have one launch before making any big announcement in that direction. But you can expect that…expect that from a strategy standpoint. Call it the 7/11 strategy. We’re going small, medium, large and extra-large, or big gulp, or whatever it is."
Friday, May 20, 2005
"We have regressed. Do you know of any technology that gets over the decades more dangerous?"
"The public is not excited about spending money to fund a trip to Mars run by an agency that doesn't have the courage to go back to the Hubble Telescope...We're not excited about spending billions to do a small amount of science on the space station."
About NASA Administrator Michael Griffin Rutan said, "I'm very impressed by him. I don't know if he can get through the bureaucracy."
Rutan is very hopeful about the future of private spaceflight, "In 15 years, every kid will know he can go in his lifetime."
Due to a law which bars the U.S. from purchasing flights on Russian spacecraft, NASA may not be able to keep personnel on the station when the shuttle is not docked after April 2006. An exception for 11 flights runs out after the launch of a module this September which is schedule to return in April 2006.
The law was enacted by Congress to punish Russia for alleged weapons technology transfers to Iran and bans NASA from purchasing flights from Russia unless the President certifies that Russia has taken steps to prevent the transfers. NASA and administration officials are said to be considering options for overcoming the ban.
Wednesday, May 18, 2005
NASA Administrator Michael Griffin is described as "lukewarm" on the future of the International Space Station and is contemplating shifting funds from experiments planned for there to the development of the Crew Exploratory Vehicle(CEV) planned to replace the Shuttle. Projects would be either delayed or canceled in a review of program priorities. Griffin has pledged to move up the time frame for replacement of the aging Shuttle fleet.
This is definitely a positive development. The main purpose for the ISS has always been to provide a purpose for the shuttle. Little scientific work of real value can be completed there and industry has shown little interest in funding research. Completing the terms of our agreements for the station, and shifting focus to establishing Lunar bases and exploring Mars will allow us return to operating a real space program.
The U.S. Air Force has requested a Presidential directive to allow it to deploy space based weapons capable of striking any place in the globe within minutes. Several systems have been under development.
Global Strike would utilize a weapon called the common aero vehicle which strike anywhere in the world within 45 minutes. Another system would use dense rods dropped from space and impacting the surface at more than 7200km/h. The kinetic energy imparted would be comparable to the that released by a small nuclear weapon. Space base laser and anti-satellite systems are also part of the equation.
If implemented, this plan could kick off a global arms race. Coupled with the conversion to robotic arms, this technology may unbalance the equation which has held back the use of military force on a larger scale.
Tuesday, May 17, 2005
Citing a lack of demand, European Aeronautic Defence and Space(EADS) has decided to scrap plans for a 12-ton version of its Ariane rocket. The current generation Ariane 5 can carry up to a 10-ton payload. Instead the company is considering developing a unmanned space glider to enter operation in the 2015-2020. Of course, wouldn't a space glider be even less useful.
I suspect that since it is a glider, they intend to make it reusable since wings have no utility in space. Reusability has only been shown to increase costs and increase them dramatically. Between the additional augmentation and weight such crafts need and the extensive refurbishment which occurs between each mission, reusable spacecrafts are an incredibly bad deal.
CNN is running has posted an interview with SpaceShipOne Designer and Aerospace legend Burt Rutan about the future of private spaceflight. Interesting quotes:
"...within the next decade, after getting a good start of flying thousands of people outside the atmosphere, we'll have solutions to move in the direction of orbital flight."
"I think mankind does need to move away from where we are to explore somewhere else. The only way we've been able to survive is because we've reached out and we've taken risks to go where we didn't live before. That's our insurance against a local catastrophe wiping out our species. Certainly in the long run I think we do need to leave the earth and have settlements elsewhere."
Sunday, May 15, 2005
In April the Russian government announced support for moving ahead with the Kliper project. The craft id designed to land either with wings on an air strip or with a parachute on land. (Why again can't the U.S. do this?) The craft is composed of two parts, the piloted component will be reusable up to 25 times, but the hardware component would be replaced after each mission. It would be capable of carrying up to six passengers, and it is claimed that could be used for missions to the moon and beyond. The Kliper may enter service within five years.
Information about the announcement is available at MosNews and SpaceDaily.
More diagrams of the Kliper and its launch configuration are available here.
The Russians seem to be taking a common sense approach to the Kliper, building upon tested-reliable technologies. For instance, the two part design of the Kliper is nearly identical to that of the Soyuz. They plan to used existing boosters. And the Kliper is designed to simply move people from Earth to space and back again and do it well, rather than the everything and the kitchen sink syndrome the US space program seems to keep falling victim to.
Friday, May 13, 2005
SpaceDev, the makers of the hybrid rocket engine which propelled SpaceShipOne to last year's completion of the X-Prize challenge, are nearing completion of an initial study for NASA that lays out plans for a 6 person reusable spacecraft capable of reaching low Earth orbit.
The plan calls for a number of sub-orbital flights by 2008 and a orbital flight by 2010.
NASA Administrator Michael Griffin submitted a revised 2005 budget to Congress which cuts funding for Project Prometheus, a number of IIS research studies and postpones two advanced space telescopes and a Mars lander slated for 2009.
The costs were needed to cover budget holes opened up by a higher than expected tab for duct-taping the shuttles together and to cover the cost of a manned expedition to the Hubble space telescope, in defiance of the Columbia Accident Review Board's recommendations. Other costs include covering $400m in Congressional pork.
While the Hubble provides pretty pictures, it would be better to move and deploy replacement telescopes launched from unmanned rockets. These would provide higher quality images at a fraction of the cost and none of the danger.
The IIS is a great white elephant meant to justify the existence of the Shuttle. Little science of value is likely to come out of it especially with the station as undermanned as it is. The acclaimed commercial research has failed to materialize.
Griffin seems to know where his bread is buttered (Congress) and is playing the odds that returning the Shuttle to flight and patching Hubble will improve the program's tarnished image. In the long run, however, this is a Faustian bargain securing NASA decline for the foreseeable future.
Next week the Canadian Arrow team plans to announce its name change to PlanetSpace as part of a new endeavor with MirCorp co-founder, Chirinjeev Kathuria. MirCorp pioneered space tourism leasing space on Mir and then arranging for Dennis Tito's flight to the IIS. The details of the new venture will be revealed on May 18th.
Last week the company achieved a milestone by successfully test firing its booster generating 45,000 lbs of thrust. Another test firing is planned later this month which is planned to achieve the 57,000 lbs of thrust needed to take the Arrow to 70,000 feet.
This sort of energy is what humanity needs if we are ever to truly become a spacefaring civilization.
Wednesday, May 11, 2005
It looks like Michael Griffin is moving in the right direction after all. Not wanting the U.S. to be out of the manned-space business for four years he's moved up the date for first launch of the Crew Exploration Vehicle(CEV) from 2014 to 2010. That will close the 2010-2014 gap with the retirement of the shuttle fleet which the CEV is meant to replace.
Originally the program was slated to select two contractors this year to submit further designs with a final contractor selected in 2008. NASA notified Congress last week that it will select a single contractor in 2006 and set the launch date at 2010.
This may open the door for a consortium of smaller companies including Scaled Composite's Burt Rutan. Their proposal is for their consortium to create a small,reusable capsule for sending and returning humans from LEO. The larger companies would then build the CEV which would remain permanently in space, removing the need for heat shielding and other equipment. The consortium claims that their 4-person vehicle could be flight-ready by 2008.